Freud's' structure of personality consisted of three parts the id, ego, and superego. The id is the primitive instinct we are born with, such as or biological needs including eating, sleeping, and so on. The ego is the decision making aspect of our personality, and operates under the persons morals. The last part of the personality is the superego where our comprehension of good and bad are stored and decided.
This website http://psychology.about.com/od/sigmundfreud/a/freudian-theory.htm describes Freuds view of personality, and the three subgroups of his theory which are id, ego, and superego.
This video helps explain Freud's theory better with the levels of consciousness and the age you receive them at.
Carl Rogers believed that for a person to grow to the best potential that they can become, they have to grow up in a environment where genuineness, empathy and acceptance are allowed. He also believed once self actualization occurred that they have achieved there wishes and goals in life. For all of this to occur one must reach ones ideal self of what they believe within themselves. Self actualization is at the up highest part of life according to Carl Rogers.
This website http://www.simplypsychology.org/carl-rogers.html lists and explains everything Carl Rogers gave to the field of psychology in his life time.
This image shows the levels of needs that a human being needs and what is in each chunks of the listed section.
A person’s ideal self may not consist with what actually happens in life and experiences of the person. So there is room for difference betweens one’s ideal self and actual self. The closer one’s ideal self is to there actual self the more congruent they are and many strive to be congruent throughout their life. But the farther apart one’s ideal self and actual self are the more incongruent they are and they may have more self defense mechanisms such as denial or repression to feel less undesirable feeling.
This website http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Carl_Rogers.html has information about Carl Rogers who introduced the congruent and incongruence like theory to psychology.
This image shows the bubbles of ideal self and actual self and the more they over lap the more congruent you will be and the happier you’ll become.
Free association is a technique first developed by Freud. This technique requires people to relate whatever thoughts come to mind no mater what the thought is. The theory is that peoples connections will lead to some underlying problem or issue.
This website http://psychcentral.com/encyclopedia/2009/free-association/ gives the definition of free association and a example of it.
This image shows that in free association that everyone has their own idea.
Non-directive therapy, discovered by Carl Rogers, puts the client in control of the therapy. Instead of directing the client, the therapist is just there to provide an empathetic, genuine, positive, and understanding environment. Rogers believed that that the use of the word client instead of patient was important because the word patient implied a sickness or problem. Directive therapy does exactly what the name says, the therapist slowly guides the client in a direction. In many large studies, non-directive therapy was proven to have a less effective long-term solution to a mental problem.
This website http://psychology.about.com/od/typesofpsychotherapy/a/client-centered-therapy.htm describes the client center therapy and what involved in the process.
This image shows a therapist and how he is letting the man speak his mind and just listens intensely.
Firstly the client-centered therapist does not lead the conversation but lets the client lead the conversation. As well, the client-centered therapist does not try to steer the client in any direction. Secondly, the client-centered therapist show complete acceptance and support. Next the client-centered therapist accepts the client for who they are and cares no matter what the client is facing, no matter large or small.
The website http://world.std.com/~mbr2/cct.html gives the definition of client-centered therapy.
This video shows a therapist performing the client-centered therapy and what the therapist would do in this situation and what the client would do in the situation of client-centered therapy.
Attempts to define abnormal behavior have been disastrous. Any number of things could be classified as abnormal and all people are different so everyone acts in different ways. Theoretically, abnormal behavior is behavior that does not conform to societal standards, or the majority of the population.
This website http://www.calresco.org/lucas/normal.htm explains abnormal normals in society and the different factors that are accounted for in abnormalities.
This image shows a fish that's different from the rest and going n a different direction, this can be seen as abnormal because the fish is not the same as the rest.