The Muller-Lyer illusion consists of straight line segments of all the same length, but the way the arrows on the end make you perceive the line segments makes them all appear to be different in length. Size constancy is where two images are the same size and the background makes them appear to be different in size. Both have attributes making images of the same size appear to be different in size.
This image is of the Muller-Lyer illusion, showing how the same line appears to be different in size, because of the arrows making it look longer.
This image is a example of the size constancy where the two men are the same size, but the walls make the back one appear bigger than the front.
Short term memory retrains information for a very short period of time, once the mind stops thinking about the object its forgotten. In long term memory the information is retrained for our mind for very long time periods. For information to be placed in long term memory the brain must focus on that information for about 10 seconds and the information is then retained. The interference theory suggests that information can be blocked by newly learned information or can be mixed together with other information making the information unretrievable.
This article http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/inside-the-mind/human-brain/human-memory2.htm on Psychology Today describes short and long term information and how information is stored in both.
This image shows the input of information and shows that it is then put into short term memory and after rehearsal can then be put into long term memory. This image also shows how information can be forgotten.
Motivation is the drive to achieve a goal, motivation is what fuels people to achieve what they set out to achieve. When people have the will to achieve a goal and set into motion to get to their goal they use the motivation of the award for achieving this goal to get them going. When a new goal comes into view different things can make you motivated to achieve this goal wether it be through other people or through ones self to get to the end and achieve the goal. Machiavellianism is a theory about motivation stating that humans seek power and control over all and while use anyone and anything to achieve this goal. Whereas Platonic's Theory there is a tri-partite theory of the soul where the soul is separated into three parts reason, spirit, and appetite all are motivated by different motivators.
This article http://www.breakthroughbasketball.com/mental/motivate-players.html describes what a good coach would do to motivate his or her players to get better through out the season.
This photo shows that the kayaking guy is motivated to go faster and get to shore quicker because of the on coming threat of dieting.
When trying to perform an experiment with human subjects, there are a few factors to consider. Participation must be voluntary. All research must be done by volunteers. There cannot be any coercion, or threatening, or bribery. Researchers must obtain informed consent. Participants must be assured that any personal information will not be shared. Also, the participant must be informed on any dangers or effects that may occur when participating in the study.
This document gives the guidelines on how to research with human participants. Standards and Operational Guidance for Ethics Review of Health-Related Research with Human Participants.
This video is about the history of ethics in human research and how it came to be.
Intelligence is the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills. During the early 1900s, the French government asked psychologist Alfred Binet to help decide which students were mostly likely to experience difficulty in schools.The government had passed laws requiring that all French children attend school, so it was important to find a way to identify children who would need specialized assistance. Alfred Binet then created the first intelligence test, referred to today as the Binet-Simon Scale, it then became the basis for the intelligence tests still in use today.
This website http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/binet.shtml gives a little information about Alfred Binet and how he came up with the Binet-Simon Scale.
This image is the document that Alfred Binet made to use to see what children needed more assistance to learn.
Infants start without language, yet by the age of 4 months babies can recognize differences in speech sounds and they can also read lips to watch the face make a certain shape to match that certain sound. This is all receptive language, where the babies understand what is being said to them. They then go from the babbling stage where they just mess around with vowel pairs. Then to the one-word stage where they match words with certain objects, to the two-word stage where babies match up two words such as "want juice" to get juice from a parent. And from there on they begin their journey to try and learn and speak entire sentences.
This website http://whyfiles.org/058language/baby_talk.html explains how the babies learn and what the sounds they are making help them learn the human language.
This image shows the babbling stage which is when babies just sputter out words to start making sounds to begin their learning of language.